indianz.com your internet resource indianz.com on facebook indianz.com on twitter indianz.com on Google+ indianz.com on soundcloud
phone: 202 630 8439
Fredericks Peebles & Morgan LLP
Advertise on Indianz.Com
Home > News > Headlines
Print   Subscribe
Opinion: Failure of treaty paved way for horrors of Indian wars

Filed Under: Opinion
More on: boyd cothran, california, klamath, treaties
     

Professor Boyd Cothran discusses the history behind the 1864 Treaty with the Klamath:
Elijah Steele knew he wasn’t authorized to negotiate an Indian treaty. As a lawyer, a judge, a former Wisconsin state senator, a founding settler of Siskiyou County, Calif., and the agent of Indian affairs for the Northern District of California, he was well aware of the protocols established by the United States Constitution. But Washington, D.C., was far away, and the nation was in the grip of civil war. And besides, on Feb. 14, 1864, Valentine’s Day, several hundred Klamath Basin Indians, much to his surprise, were camped outside his home in Yreka.

Steele’s guests – Lileks of the Klamath, Schonchin of the Modoc and Josh and Jack of the Shasta Indian tribes, as well as others – wanted him to help negotiate a settlement among themselves and with the ever growing number of settlers pouring into the region. In fact, by the winter of 1864, against the backdrop of intense battles and increasing death tolls to the east, with Gen. William T. Sherman’s Army of the Mississippi tearing up railroad ties on its way to Meridian, Miss., rumors of an impending war between Indians and settlers reverberated through southern Oregon and northern California’s Klamath Basin.

Steele knew he had to do something. And he did: The unauthorized agreement he helped forge brought peace, and offered an alternative vision of United States-Indian relations in the region. But it was a vision that wouldn’t last.

Settler-Indian violence was nothing new in Siskiyou County. Between 1847 and 1858, the Oregon and Washington Territories had been destabilized by a series of bloody wars, while farther to the south, in the gold fields of California, murder and mayhem reigned. This period of violence transformed the lives of the region’s Native Americans. Most Indians west of the Cascades were removed to distant or marginal reservations. Indians in California, though, suffered disproportionately. Scholars estimate that some 80 percent of the Indians in the state died from violence or the impact of displacement during the upheaval following the Gold Rush.

Get the Story:
Boyd Cothran: The Valentine’s Day Treaty (The New York Times 2/14)


Copyright © Indianz.Com
More headlines...
Stay Connected:
On Facebook

On Twitter

On Google+

On SoundCloud
Local Links:
Federal Register | Indian Gaming | Jobs & Notices | In The Hoop | Message Board
Latest News:
Colville Tribes hail 'historic victory' on aboriginal hunting rights (3/27)
Dakota Access confirms pipeline about to go into service with oil (3/27)
Senate Committee on Indian Affairs considers new round of bills (3/27)
Witness list for hearing on diabetes prevention and Native youth (3/27)
Tim Giago: There's a smell of treason in the air in nation's capital (3/27)
Mark Trahant: The fight ahead for the future of Indian health care (3/27)
Bill John Baker: Woman play important roles in Cherokee Nation (3/27)
Brian Lightfoot Brown: One last victory for the Narragansett Tribe (3/27)
Native Sun News Today: Oglala Sioux Tribe questions loss of funds (3/27)
James Giago Davies: Troubled times are coming to Lakota country (3/27)
Sarah Van Gelder: Huge bank divests from Dakota Access Pipeline (3/27)
Cronkite News: Navajo Nation hails decision on aging power plant (3/27)
Tiffany Midge: There's a happy ending for Standing Rock out there (3/27)
Steven Newcomb: Getting to the true meaning of our sovereignty (3/27)
Steve Russell: Losing our status as 'domestic dependent nations' (3/27)
Mona Evans: Creek Nation fails to support Indian Child Welfare Act (3/27)
Oklahoma Democrats hire LaRenda Morgan as first Native liaison (3/27)
Chukchansi Tribe fires back at gaming firm seeking $21M in court (3/27)
Tribes mount another fight after Trump approves another pipeline (3/24)
Native Sun News Today: Navajo elders continue long fight on land (3/24)
Editorial: Just another day of trying to keep up with the Trumps (3/24)
Elizabeth LaPensée: Video games encourage indigenous culture (3/24)
Mary Annette Pember: Native women work with youth offenders (3/24)
Tiffany Midge: Trump continues to conjure hero Andrew Jackson (3/24)
John Kane: Seneca Nation money train coming to end in New York (3/24)
Grand Ronde Tribes secure approval of school mascot agreement (3/24)
Editorial: Federal recognition for tribes in Virginia is long overdue (3/24)
Seneca Nation ends casino payments after sending $1.4B to state (3/24)
Appeals court hears slew of Indian cases amid focus on nominee (3/23)
Internal tribal disputes continue to trip up federal court system (3/23)
Mark Trahant: Indian health care gains ignored in political debate (3/23)
Native Sun News Today: Young fighters maintain Lakota tradition (3/23)
Ivan Star Comes Out: America loses its self-respect and humanity (3/23)
Rosalyn LaPier: Why water remains sacred to indigenous peoples (3/23)
Winona LaDuke: North Dakota spreads filth about water protectors (3/23)
Harold Monteau: Tribal governments are abusing their own people (3/23)
Alex Jacobs: Donald Trump in middle of the 'deep state civil war' (3/23)
Secretary Zinke announces 'doggy days' for Interior Department (3/23)
Keystone XL Pipeline route crosses Ponca Tribe's forced removal (3/23)
Indian lawmaker resigns after being charged for child prostitution (3/23)
more headlines...

Home | Arts & Entertainment | Business | Canada | Cobell Lawsuit | Education | Environment | Federal Recognition | Federal Register | Forum | Health | Humor | Indian Gaming | Indian Trust | Jack Abramoff Scandal | Jobs & Notices | Law | National | News | Opinion | Politics | Sports | Technology | World

Indianz.Com Terms of Service | Indianz.Com Privacy Policy
About Indianz.Com | Advertise on Indianz.Com

Indianz.Com is a product of Noble Savage Media, LLC and Ho-Chunk, Inc.