indianz.com your internet resource indianz.com on facebook indianz.com on twitter indianz.com on Google+ indianz.com on soundcloud
phone: 202 630 8439
Sovereignty and E-Commerce:  Innovating and Reshaping the  Borders of Indian Country - Arizona State University Third Annual Tribal Government E-Commerce CLE Conference
Advertise on Indianz.Com
Home > News > Headlines
Print   Subscribe
Stanley Heller: War Secretary Calhoun called for 'civilized' tribes

Filed Under: Education | Opinion
More on: andrew jackson, john calhoun, racism, stanley heller, treaties
     
   

John C. Calhoun in 1849. Photo by Mathew Brady

A movement at Yale University seeks to take the name of John C. Calhoun, a former Secretary of War and a former U.S. vice president, off a residential college due to his promotion of slavery. But Stanley Heller of The Struggle notes that Calhoun was no friend to Indian nations either:
Calhoun was Secretary of War under President Monroe. In 1818 he wrote a report to Congress saying it was time for a new policy towards Indians. One reason he said was not because of recent decisive Indian military defeats, but also because of a “fixed law of nature, in the intercourse between a civilized and a savage people.” Indians had become dependent on advanced tools produced by whites and were becoming helpless.

What did Calhoun conclude? He wrote that Indians “neither are, nor ought to be, considered as independent nations.” All tribal authority had to end. Indians had better adopt white ways and fast. The U.S. had to look out for them for their own good. “It is only by causing our opinion of their interest to prevail, that they can be civilized and saved from extinction.”

In the 1820 white land lust in Georgia pressed against the Creek nation and the federal government bargained a treaty in which they surrendered 4.5 million acres. This only spurred Georgians to press for more and they turned their sights on the Cherokee. They proposed the Cherokee sell their land, but were rebuffed. Cherokee leaders appealed to Washington, but Secretary of War Calhoun in 1824 told the Cherokees they could not remain in Georgia as a separate community. That was not enough for expansionist Georgians, though. They didn’t want the Cherokee in Georgia as individual property owners either.

In 1825 U.S. negotiators made a treaty with a Creek leader who fraudulently represented himself as the authority for all Creeks. Millions of acres of Creek land were surrendered along with an agreement that the Creek would relocate west of the Mississippi. The U.S. Indian agent for the Creeks protested the fraud to Calhoun, but he never replied. He was on his way to becoming John Quincy Adams Vice-President. In all Calhoun made 41 treaties with Indian nations, all but five required Native Americans to cede land to the U.S.

Read More:
Stanley Heller: Yale’s Calhoun, Indian Removal, and #NODAPL (Indian Country Today 11/11)


Copyright © Indianz.Com
More headlines...
Stay Connected:
On Facebook

On Twitter

On Google+

On SoundCloud
Local Links:
Federal Register | Indian Gaming | Jobs & Notices | In The Hoop | Message Board
Latest News:
President Trump confirms Indian Country's fears with budget request (5/23)
Office of Special Trustee pitches lower budget as 'taxpayer' savings (5/23)
Steven Newcomb: Monuments to white supremacy harm our people (5/23)
Two more spills of oil from Dakota Access Pipeline in North Dakota (5/23)
Native woman in skirt and sandals wins ultramarathon in Mexico (5/23)
Brothers from Huichol Tribe murdered as drug war rages in Mexico (5/23)
Iowa Tribe misses deadline again to launch internet poker project (5/23)
Mississippi Choctaw citizens request vote on $25M casino project (5/23)
Aquinnah Wampanoag Tribe must wait to restart work on casino (5/23)
Documents show few meetings between Secretary Zinke and tribes (5/22)
Landowners on 2 reservations in Nebraska receive buy-back offers (5/22)
Human Rights Complaint: 'We are only letting the white people in' (5/22)
Mark Trahant: Funds for Indian health in danger under Republicans (5/22)
Cronkite News: Navajo Nation school works hard to teach language (5/22)
Harlan McKosato: DNA tests can't reveal your unique tribal history (5/22)
Gyasi Ross: Fired FBI director made sure Peltier remained in prison (5/22)
Tiffany Midge: A response to winning the cultural appropriation prize (5/22)
André Cramblit: Treasure your aunties and uncles for their histories (5/22)
Treaty tribes celebrate after court refuses to rehear salmon dispute (5/22)
Eastern Cherokee leaders open impeachment hearing against chief (5/22)
Top Interior nominee contradicts Trump on 'race' and tribal programs (5/19)
Arne Vainio: Expressing gratitude for the people we have around us (5/19)
Lawmakers dug deep to help North Dakota with #NoDAPL response (5/19)
Quapaw Tribe secures EPA grant for cleanup of contaminated lands (5/19)
Steven Newcomb: The racist and toxic roots of federal Indian policy (5/19)
Indian Country braces for worst with Trump's planned budget cuts (5/18)
Bipartisan task force announced to look into Indian Health Service (5/18)
Lawmakers push to renew Special Diabetes Program for Indians (5/18)
Albert Bender: Police slaughter of Native people rages unabated (5/18)
Steve Russell: There's a downside to impeaching Donald Trump (5/18)
Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe cannabis consultant goes on trial (5/18)
Lower Brule Sioux Tribe repays money to address federal audit (5/18)
House passes bill to extend federal recognition to Virginia tribes (5/18)
Kalispel Tribe using bottled water at casino after contamination (5/18)
Leech Lake Band wins approval to build new casino at new site (5/18)
Tohono O'odham Nation secures victory in long-running dispute (5/17)
Dakota Access seeks to intervene in Oglala Sioux Tribe's lawsuit (5/17)
Senate Committee on Indian Affairs approves 3 bills at meeting (5/17)
Indian Health Service and 'high risk' tribal programs on agenda (5/17)
Bureau of Indian Affairs designates service area for Tejon Tribe (5/17)
Ruth Hopkins: Taxpayers footing $15M bill for DAPL private army (5/17)
more headlines...

Home | Arts & Entertainment | Business | Canada | Cobell Lawsuit | Education | Environment | Federal Recognition | Federal Register | Forum | Health | Humor | Indian Gaming | Indian Trust | Jack Abramoff Scandal | Jobs & Notices | Law | National | News | Opinion | Politics | Sports | Technology | World

Indianz.Com Terms of Service | Indianz.Com Privacy Policy
About Indianz.Com | Advertise on Indianz.Com

Indianz.Com is a product of Noble Savage Media, LLC and Ho-Chunk, Inc.