indianz.com your internet resource indianz.com on facebook indianz.com on twitter indianz.com on Google+ indianz.com on soundcloud
phone: 202 630 8439
Fredericks Peebles & Morgan LLP
Advertise on Indianz.Com
Home > News > Headlines
Print   Subscribe
Stanley Heller: War Secretary Calhoun called for 'civilized' tribes

Filed Under: Education | Opinion
More on: andrew jackson, john calhoun, racism, stanley heller, treaties
     
   

John C. Calhoun in 1849. Photo by Mathew Brady

A movement at Yale University seeks to take the name of John C. Calhoun, a former Secretary of War and a former U.S. vice president, off a residential college due to his promotion of slavery. But Stanley Heller of The Struggle notes that Calhoun was no friend to Indian nations either:
Calhoun was Secretary of War under President Monroe. In 1818 he wrote a report to Congress saying it was time for a new policy towards Indians. One reason he said was not because of recent decisive Indian military defeats, but also because of a “fixed law of nature, in the intercourse between a civilized and a savage people.” Indians had become dependent on advanced tools produced by whites and were becoming helpless.

What did Calhoun conclude? He wrote that Indians “neither are, nor ought to be, considered as independent nations.” All tribal authority had to end. Indians had better adopt white ways and fast. The U.S. had to look out for them for their own good. “It is only by causing our opinion of their interest to prevail, that they can be civilized and saved from extinction.”

In the 1820 white land lust in Georgia pressed against the Creek nation and the federal government bargained a treaty in which they surrendered 4.5 million acres. This only spurred Georgians to press for more and they turned their sights on the Cherokee. They proposed the Cherokee sell their land, but were rebuffed. Cherokee leaders appealed to Washington, but Secretary of War Calhoun in 1824 told the Cherokees they could not remain in Georgia as a separate community. That was not enough for expansionist Georgians, though. They didn’t want the Cherokee in Georgia as individual property owners either.

In 1825 U.S. negotiators made a treaty with a Creek leader who fraudulently represented himself as the authority for all Creeks. Millions of acres of Creek land were surrendered along with an agreement that the Creek would relocate west of the Mississippi. The U.S. Indian agent for the Creeks protested the fraud to Calhoun, but he never replied. He was on his way to becoming John Quincy Adams Vice-President. In all Calhoun made 41 treaties with Indian nations, all but five required Native Americans to cede land to the U.S.

Read More:
Stanley Heller: Yale’s Calhoun, Indian Removal, and #NODAPL (Indian Country Today 11/11)


Copyright © Indianz.Com
More headlines...
Stay Connected:
On Facebook

On Twitter

On Google+

On SoundCloud
Local Links:
Federal Register | Indian Gaming | Jobs & Notices | In The Hoop | Message Board
Latest News:
Lakota Country Times: New Oglala Sioux leader encourages youth (1/20)
Native Sun News Today: A new leader for Great Plains tribal group (1/20)
Native Sun News Today Editorial: It's a new era for Indian Country (1/20)
Mark Charles: Decoding Trump's bid to 'Make America Great Again' (1/19)
Lakota Country Times: Another year of big news in Lakota territory (1/19)
Native Sun News Today: DefundDAPL billboard goes up in New York (1/19)
Vi Waln: Let's kick our smoking and tobacco habit in Indian Country (1/19)
Terese Mailhot: Native women care what happens to all our sisters (1/19)
Leonard Peltier remains behind bars as Obama rejects clemency (1/19)
Department of the Army takes the lead on Dakota Access Pipeline (1/18)
Dakota Access executive confirms crude already placed in pipeline (1/18)
Bureau of Indian Affairs releases annual listing of recognized tribes (1/18)
Lakota Country Times: Rosebud Sioux Tribe opens homeless shelter (1/18)
Native Sun News Today: Northern Cheyenne focuses on foster care (1/18)
Brandon Ecoffey: Be safe and be prepared as winter hits the plains (1/18)
Disenrollment epidemic affects dozens of tribes across the nation (1/18)
New battle opens as Dakota Access disputes environmental review (1/17)
Judge declines to block publication of Dakota Access Pipeline notice (1/17)
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe responds quickly to Dakota Access threat (1/17)
President Obama names first members of Native youth commission (1/17)
Tim Giago: Discovering a love for food at an Indian boarding school (1/17)
Lakota Country Times: Historic decision for Indian Child Welfare Act (1/17)
Native Sun News Today: Pine Ridge teams fight it out at the buzzer (1/17)
Delphine Red Shirt: Tournament is a testament to our Native youth (1/17)
Native Sun News Today Editorial: News for ranchers in the new year (1/17)
Gyasi Ross: Let's divest from DAPL and support Native owned banks (1/17)
Jeffrey Ostler/Nick Estes: Treaties and the Dakota Access Pipeline (1/17)
Mary Annette Pember: Bad River Band takes stand on oil pipeline (1/17)
Steve Russell: Resolutions for tribal leaders and even the Donald (1/17)
Craig Tribal Association celebrates 'historic' trust land acquisition (1/16)
Mark Trahant: Congress moves forward with repeal of Obamacare (1/16)
Native Sun News Today: Northern Cheyenne banker beats the odds (1/16)
James Giago Davies: The real power to defeat the Wasicu pipeline (1/16)
Tiffany Midge: Hollywood needs to stop stereotyping Native people (1/16)
Peter d'Errico: New book connects Native America with Palestine (1/16)
Alaska tribe makes history with approval of trust land application (1/13)
more headlines...

Home | Arts & Entertainment | Business | Canada | Cobell Lawsuit | Education | Environment | Federal Recognition | Federal Register | Forum | Health | Humor | Indian Gaming | Indian Trust | Jack Abramoff Scandal | Jobs & Notices | Law | National | News | Opinion | Politics | Sports | Technology | World

Indianz.Com Terms of Service | Indianz.Com Privacy Policy
About Indianz.Com | Advertise on Indianz.Com

Indianz.Com is a product of Noble Savage Media, LLC and Ho-Chunk, Inc.