More: marc simmons

Marc Simmons: Tribes developed own trade and commerce system
Marc Simmons: Tribes developed own trade and commerce system (August 22, 2016)

I am often surprised to find young people who assume that the wondrous supermarket has been around since the beginning of time.


Marc Simmons: The Indian wars continued in New Mexico in 1881
Marc Simmons: The Indian wars continued in New Mexico in 1881 (August 8, 2016)

By 1881 the Indian wars had ended almost everywhere in the American West.


Marc Simmons: Navajo Nation remains a subject of much study
Marc Simmons: Navajo Nation remains a subject of much study (July 11, 2016)

It is doubtful that any other group of Natives in our country has been the subject of more books.


Marc Simmons: Pablo Abeita was a memorable Pueblo leader
Marc Simmons: Pablo Abeita was a memorable Pueblo leader (February 18, 2016)

In his day, Pablo Abeita of Isleta Pueblo was perhaps the most influential Indian in New Mexico.


Marc Simmons: Geronimo never got to see homeland after capture
Marc Simmons: Geronimo never got to see homeland after capture (January 25, 2016)

The surrender of Geronimo in the late summer of 1886 brought to a close the long story of Apache wars in the Southwest.


Marc Simmons: Tribe that migrated from Mexico largely forgotten
Marc Simmons: Tribe that migrated from Mexico largely forgotten (January 19, 2016)

When Fernando Cortez initiated his conquest in 1519, he met and befriended the Tlaxcalans.


Marc Simmons: Apache people betrayed by federal government
Marc Simmons: Apache people betrayed by federal government (December 14, 2015)

In the last years of the Apache wars, a warrior named Massai acquired something of a name for himself when he made a daring escape from the clutches of his white captors.


Marc Simmons: Site of Apache chief Victorio's death in dispute
Marc Simmons: Site of Apache chief Victorio's death in dispute (November 23, 2015)

Was Apache Chief Victorio killed in New Mexico or in Mexico in 1880?


Marc Simmons: Spanish book of laws included section on 'Indios'
Marc Simmons: Spanish book of laws included section on 'Indios' (July 14, 2015)

The Recopilación provided extensive protection for the Indians, who were regarded as wards of the government.


Marc Simmons: Spanish expedition led to battle in Nebraska
Marc Simmons: Spanish expedition led to battle in Nebraska (May 11, 2015)

To readers of colonial New Mexico history, the names Coronado, Espejo, Oñate, Vargas, Escalante and De Anza are quite familiar.


Marc Simmons: Colonial official arrested for allowing tribal dance
Marc Simmons: Colonial official arrested for allowing tribal dance (April 29, 2015)

Gov. Mendizábal listened intently and then announced that he was granting the Indians permission to stage these ceremonies openly, in public. Indeed, he gleefully and strongly encouraged them to do so.


Marc Simmons: The legend of the White chief among the Apache
Marc Simmons: The legend of the White chief among the Apache (April 13, 2015)

New Mexicans had long speculated that this individual was Charley McComas, seized by Apaches near Lordsburg in 1883 when he was 6 years old and raised as an Indian.


Marc Simmons: Spanish diplomacy with tribes included gifts
Marc Simmons: Spanish diplomacy with tribes included gifts (November 10, 2014)

Exploring the gift-giving tradition that characterized early relations between tribal nations and foreign governments.


Marc Simmons: Mangas Coloradas was powerful Apache chief
Marc Simmons: Mangas Coloradas was powerful Apache chief (July 14, 2014)

Marc Simmons looks at the life of Mangas Coloradas, one of the most powerful Apache leaders.


Marc Simmons: Report provides 19th century view of Apaches
Marc Simmons: Report provides 19th century view of Apaches (June 2, 2014)

Marc Simmons offers a glimpse into a 19th-century Spanish report into the Apache people.


Marc Simmons: Delaware warriors found their way to New Mexico
Marc Simmons: Delaware warriors found their way to New Mexico (April 7, 2014)

Marc Simmons describes how the Delaware people were pushed out of their homelands and how some even ended up in New Mexico.


Marc Simmons: Taos Pueblo fought for decades for sacred lake
Marc Simmons: Taos Pueblo fought for decades for sacred lake (March 24, 2014)

Marc Simmons chronicles the return of the sacred Blue Lake in New Mexico to Taos Pueblo.


Marc Simmons: Spanish diplomacy with Comanche Nation
Marc Simmons: Spanish diplomacy with Comanche Nation (January 27, 2014)

Marc Simmons discusses how Spanish officials attempted diplomatic relations with the Comanche Nation is present-day New Mexico.


Marc Simmons: Captive Indians left to live among Spanish
Marc Simmons: Captive Indians left to live among Spanish (January 20, 2014)

Author Marc Simmons discusses a historical group of Indians who were captured in their youth and struggled to live among the Spanish in New Mexico as adults.


Marc Simmons: Tribe massacred its own for religious treason
Marc Simmons: Tribe massacred its own for religious treason (August 5, 2013)

Historian Marc Simmons writes of genocide committed by members of the Hopi Tribe of Arizona.


Marc Simmons: Scalping   found among some    New Mexico tribes
Marc Simmons: Scalping found among some New Mexico tribes (April 8, 2013)

Marc Simmons on the practice of scalping among tribes in New Mexico


Marc Simmons: Spanish official harsh on tribes in New Mexico
Marc Simmons: Spanish official harsh on tribes in New Mexico (March 11, 2013)

Historian Marc Simmons on the crimes of an early Spanish Colonial governor: Who today knows the name of Diego de Peñalosa? Very few people, I suspect, even though he was...


Marc Simmons: Army used 'talking mirrors' to find Geronimo
Marc Simmons: Army used 'talking mirrors' to find Geronimo (February 25, 2013)

"During the last campaign against Geronimo in 1886, the U.S. Army introduced a heliograph system for the rapid transmission of messages across the Southwestern deserts. The heliograph was a small,...


Marc Simmons: Column on To'Hajiilee drew most comments
Marc Simmons: Column on To'Hajiilee drew most comments (December 31, 2012)

"My sketch of the history of the Tó Hajiilee Navajos, until recently known as the Cañoncito Navajos, brought the most responses of any column this year. Those are the people...


Marc Simmons: 1st Christmas  was at Ohkay Owingeh in 1598
Marc Simmons: 1st Christmas was at Ohkay Owingeh in 1598 (December 24, 2012)

"For newcomers, their first Christmas in New Mexico often catches them by surprise. The sacred holiday here always seems a bit foreign, or even exotic, and at the very least...


Marc Simmons: Spanish explorers tempted by tribal 'treasure'
Marc Simmons: Spanish explorers tempted by tribal 'treasure' (September 24, 2012)

"By the late 1530s, rumors had reached the viceregal capital that treasure-laden cities of the Indians lay to the far north, beyond the frontier. Mendoza was interested but skeptical. So...


Marc Simmons: Navajo Code Talkers won overdue recognition
Marc Simmons: Navajo Code Talkers won overdue recognition (August 24, 2012)

"Not longer ago, I heard a radio announcement that another of the now-famous Navajo Code Talkers of World War II had died. Flags were being lowered to half-mast throughout the...


Marc Simmons: Comanches taught bison hunting to new settlers
Marc Simmons: Comanches taught bison hunting to new settlers (July 30, 2012)

"On occasion in past columns, I’ve referred to the New Mexican buffalo hunter, called a cibolero, derived from the local word cíbolo, meaning buffalo. Recently, in my file on the...


Marc Simmons: Navajo community was long shunned as outcast
Marc Simmons: Navajo community was long shunned as outcast (July 16, 2012)

"There is a hidden story lurking in the shadows of Navajo history that has never been fully told. Some pieces of the tale are missing, yet enough remains, allowing a...


Marc Simmons: Forts named for fallen soldiers in the Indian wars
Marc Simmons: Forts named for fallen soldiers in the Indian wars (June 18, 2012)

"Mexico during the 19th century, a handful were named for soldiers who gave their lives in defense of the territory. The earliest to do so was Capt. John Burgwin of...


Marc Simmons: New governor battled the powerful Comanches
Marc Simmons: New governor battled the powerful Comanches (May 21, 2012)

"On April 6, 1749, young Tomás Vélez Cachupín, newly arrived in New Mexico, took the oath of office to become governor of the province. The document he signed on that...


Marc Simmons: Early Europeans found Indians but no gold
Marc Simmons: Early Europeans found Indians but no gold (April 23, 2012)

"When Fray Juan de Padilla learned of the pending expedition, he sought out the leader, Coronado, and begged to go along as chaplain. His offer was accepted. The dramatic story...


Marc Simmons: A tale behind Bandelier National Monument
Marc Simmons: A tale behind Bandelier National Monument (April 9, 2012)

"At the age of 12, I first visited the Bandelier National Monument, squeezed between the Rio Grande on the east and the Jemez Mountains on the west. That was more...


Marc Simmons: Official led battles against Navajo and Apache
Marc Simmons: Official led battles against Navajo and Apache (February 6, 2012)

"Juan Domínguez, born about 1627, was the son of Tomé Domínguez, a successful Mexico City merchant who transported goods up the Camino Real to New Mexico, beginning in 1631. Then...


Marc Simmons:  Military governor prolonged   war with Navajos
Marc Simmons: Military governor prolonged war with Navajos (November 28, 2011)

"On Oct. 10, 1848, Col. John M. Washington marched into Santa Fe leading four dragoon companies intended to bolster New Mexico's scant military defenses against hostile Indians. The colonel had...


Marc Simmons: Insider gave knowledge about Pueblo Revolt
Marc Simmons: Insider gave knowledge about Pueblo Revolt (November 21, 2011)

"In the summer of 1680, a seismic upheaval among the Pueblo Indians brought down Spain's colony of New Mexico. A general revolt of the Native people spread throughout the land,...


Marc Simmons: Army enlisted Apache scouts in Indian wars
Marc Simmons: Army enlisted Apache scouts in Indian wars (November 7, 2011)

"An extraordinary chapter in Southwest history highlights the service of U.S. Army Apache Scouts. Authorized by Congress in 1866, the Native units, organized in companies, were used for tracking down...


Marc Simmons: Navajos weren't  eager to accept Christian faith
Marc Simmons: Navajos weren't eager to accept Christian faith (October 17, 2011)

"Beginning in the mid 1740s, Spaniards launched their first serious attempt to convert the "heathen" Navajos to Christianity. At that time, the Indians made their living by farming and raiding....


Marc Simmons: John Collier motivated to protect Pueblo people
Marc Simmons: John Collier motivated to protect Pueblo people (July 18, 2011)

"The long story of Indian-Anglo relations in New Mexico, as elsewhere, has followed an exceedingly bumpy road. One of those active along the way was John Collier, a strong believer...


Marc Simmons: Military attempted attack on Navajos in 1948
Marc Simmons: Military attempted attack on Navajos in 1948 (June 27, 2011)

"The first major expedition by United States military troops against hostile Navajos began May 1, 1848. Col. Edward W. Newby, commander of the 9th Military Department of New Mexico, departed...


Marc Simmons: Religion played a role in war  in New Mexico
Marc Simmons: Religion played a role in war in New Mexico (June 13, 2011)

"The Spanish kingdom of New Mexico was first settled in 1598 by soldiers and their families. These conquistadors brought memories of Spain's centuries-long wars with Islamic Moors that ended with...


Marc Simmons: Pueblo burials mixed non-Native beliefs
Marc Simmons: Pueblo burials mixed non-Native beliefs (May 31, 2011)

"As a common New Mexico folk saying goes, De la muerte y de la suerte, no hay quien se escape. That is, none among us can escape our fate or...


Marc Simmons: Zuni Pueblo often retreated to sacred site
Marc Simmons: Zuni Pueblo often retreated to sacred site (May 23, 2011)

"One of New Mexico's most fabled shrines is Towa Yalane, a flat-topped mountain rising a thousand feet above a sandy plain, just three miles southeast of Zuni Pueblo. The name...


Marc Simmons: Spanish governor improved tribal relations
Marc Simmons: Spanish governor improved tribal relations (April 18, 2011)

"In 1787, Fernando de la Concha arrived in Santa Fe to assume the governorship. With instructions from the royal government, he made the trip to follow up on the successes...


Marc Simmons: How     Pueblos   stayed warm during   Little Ice Age
Marc Simmons: How Pueblos stayed warm during Little Ice Age (April 4, 2011)

"During the severely low temperatures this past February, I began to wonder how the Pueblo Indians long ago managed to get by when they experienced even harsher conditions. A little...


Marc Simmons: Spanish expedition passed through many  Pueblos
Marc Simmons: Spanish expedition passed through many Pueblos (January 24, 2011)

"The Coronado expedition, beginning in 1450, conducted the first grand-scale exploration of the future state of New Mexico. The Spaniards had traveled up the east side of Arizona to reach...


Marc Simmons: Stories of capture      among      Apache in New Mexico
Marc Simmons: Stories of capture among Apache in New Mexico (January 10, 2011)

"In its day, the old Silver City Enterprise was one of New Mexico's outstanding territorial newspapers. Recently, while I was reading through its back file, a short notice dated...